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Glycoproteins on outer surface of red blood cell plasma membrane that are genetically determined. Sign in. Helpfulness: 0.
Set Details Share. Subjects: anatomy and physiology ii lab. Pituitary Gland. Parathyroid Glands-- yellow. Posterior Pituitary.
Ovarian Follicles. Pancreatic Islet. Phagocytize pathogens or debris. Kill parasitic worms, complex role in allergy and asthma. Release histamine and other mediators of inflammation. Mount immune response by direct cell attack of via antibody production. Develop into macrophages in tissues and phagocytize pathogens or debris. A hormone that stimulates an endocrine gland to secrete its own hormone.
Welcome to Biology 2021!
Increase in the number of white blood cells in blood, especially during infection. Reduction in the number of white blood cells in blood, typical of various diseases. Uncontrolled growth of immature, abnormal non-functional leukocytes. An abnormally increased concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. Vascular Spasm 2. Formation of platelet plug 3. Act against red blood cells carrying antigens not present on the persons own RBC. Gross Anatomy of the Heart. The pressure of blood in the circulatory system.
The pressure in blood vessels when the heart contracts. The pressure in blood vessels when the heart is at rest between beats. Characteristic sounds of resumption of blood flow to forearm when using a sphygmomanometer. The great saphenous vein. Order of Leukocytes from most numerous to least numerous. Left ventricle and atrium.
Right ventricle and atrium.Anatomy and Physiology may be presented as two different subjects, but they are so closely linked that they are impossible to separate.
In Elementary Biology, you learn that structure, even at the level of molecular biology, is directly tied to function. Anatomy and Physiology classes apply this rule in much greater detail. You gain in-depth knowledge of structures in the Anatomy sections of the course, and you are introduced to the specific implications of these structures in the Physiology section.
Instruction in Anatomy often begins by discussing bodily structures including muscles, bones, organs, connective tissues, nerves, and vasculature. You learn the mechanics of these structures, implementing some biophysics material into your understanding of biological structures.
Cardiovascular System Anatomy and Physiology
It becomes important to understand the mechanical properties of various tissues during the physiological analysis, including force-tension analyses, bone structures, bioelectrical conduction, and other characteristics of muscle, bone, and nerves. In Anatomy, you also need to learn the names and positions of numerous structures, which requires a great deal of memorization.
You become familiar with the actions, origins, and insertions of muscles, as well as the various protrusions and contours of the bones. Neuroanatomy is often a point of focus, requiring you to learn both the topical anatomy of the brain and the sub-cortical structures. Neural and muscular anatomy generally compose the majority of Anatomy course content.
Anatomy is essentially the foundation from which you can build an understanding of Physiology. Once you are familiar with the orientation of various structures and their integration with one another, you can begin to apply functional significance to these relationships. Physiology focuses on the causes and effects of various bodily functions. Physiological content will often parallel the depth to which anatomical content was previously covered.
For example, since Anatomy frequently focuses on nerves and muscles, Physiology often pays particular attention to these groups. In Physiology, you learn in-depth mechanisms of action potential propagation and neural regulation, muscle contraction theories and neuromuscular junction mechanics, and the causes of numerous disorders that are linked to the functions of these regions.
Most Physiology courses also focus on endocrine mechanisms, since these actions largely affect the function of the rest of the body. Physiology content can vary from the large-scale functions of the body e. It is impossible to cover all physiological mechanisms in a single course, but even introductory Physiology courses address numerous mechanisms that affect different levels of function.
Testing and exams in Anatomy and Physiology can include both written exams and laboratory practicals. For written exams, questions are often linked to labeling anatomical diagrams, though exam format can vary greatly by course.
Many courses will teach the symptoms or signs of diseases, disorders, or injuries associated with class topics. Be prepared to provide diagnoses of hypothetical conditions or scenarios that may be offered on exams.
Laboratory practicals are based on physical models, often dissected organisms. Questions in the practical are often linked to Anatomy, but can also easily cover the function of a pinned organ or the relationship it shares with other structures in the body. Each Practice Test consists of ten to twelve Human Anatomy and Physiology questions; you can think of each one as being a little quiz you can use to hone your skills.
Each question includes a detailed explanation, so if you miss one, you can figure out where you went wrong. Upon completing a Practice Test, you also receive detailed statistics that allow you to see how well you did in comparison to other test-takers, as well as how long you took to answer each problem. We are open Saturday and Sunday! Subject optional. Home Embed. Email address: Your name:. Take the Varsity Learning Tools free diagnostic test for Human Anatomy and Physiology to determine which academic concepts you understand and which ones require your ongoing attention.
Each Human Anatomy and Physiology problem is tagged down to the core, underlying concept that is being tested. The Human Anatomy and Physiology diagnostic test results highlight how you performed on each area of the test.
You can then utilize the results to create a personalized study plan that is based on your particular area of need. Test Difficulty :. Average Time Spent : 6 hrs 17 mins.The vital importance of the heart is obvious.
If one assumes an average rate of contraction of 75 contractions per minute, a human heart would contract approximatelytimes in one day, more than 39 million times in one year, and nearly 3 billion times during a year lifespan. Each of the major pumping chambers of the heart ejects approximately 70 mL blood per contraction in a resting adult.
This would be equal to 5. Over one year, that would equal 10, liters or 2. In order to understand how that happens, it is necessary to understand the anatomy and physiology of the heart.
The human heart is located within the thoracic cavity, medially between the lungs in the space known as the mediastinum. Within the mediastinum, the heart is separated from the other mediastinal structures by a tough membrane known as the pericardium, or pericardial sac, and sits in its own space called the pericardial cavity.
The dorsal surface of the heart lies near the bodies of the vertebrae, and its anterior surface sits deep to the sternum and costal cartilages. The great veins, the superior and inferior venae cavae, and the great arteries, the aorta and pulmonary trunk, are attached to the superior surface of the heart, called the base. The base of the heart is located at the level of the third costal cartilage, as seen in Figure 1.
The inferior tip of the heart, the apex, lies just to the left of the sternum between the junction of the fourth and fifth ribs near their articulation with the costal cartilages. The right side of the heart is deflected anteriorly, and the left side is deflected posteriorly. It is important to remember the position and orientation of the heart when placing a stethoscope on the chest of a patient and listening for heart sounds, and also when looking at images taken from a midsagittal perspective.
The slight deviation of the apex to the left is reflected in a depression in the medial surface of the inferior lobe of the left lung, called the cardiac notch. Figure 1.
The heart is located within the thoracic cavity, medially between the lungs in the mediastinum. It is about the size of a fist, is broad at the top, and tapers toward the base. By applying pressure with the flat portion of one hand on the sternum in the area between the lines in the image belowit is possible to manually compress the blood within the heart enough to push some of the blood within it into the pulmonary and systemic circuits. This is particularly critical for the brain, as irreversible damage and death of neurons occur within minutes of loss of blood flow.
If you are unfamiliar with this song, you can likely find a version of it online. At this stage, the emphasis is on performing high-quality chest compressions, rather than providing artificial respiration.To login with Google, please enable popups. Sign up. To signup with Google, please enable popups.
Does blood enter the atrial chambers of the heart at a high or low pressure? Does blood leave the ventricles at a high or low pressure? What node acts as a pacemaker for the heart? How does the SA node act as a pacemaker? What causes the 1st heart sound? What does closing the AV valve prevent? What is the 1st heart sound the onset of? What causes the 2nd heart sound? What does the 2nd heart sound represent the onset of?
What does the P wave indicate? What does the PR interval indicate? What does the QRS complex represent? What does the QT interval represent?
What does the T wave represent?
Part 1 of Anatomy & Physiology II -- Exam 2 Study Guide -- Heart and Circulation
What is indicated by a small R-R interval? How is heart rate calculated? Why are the heights so different in ECGs? What is the range for normal resting heart rate? Why would a trained athlete have a resting heart rate of bpm? Therefore, the heart can beat less to do the same job. What is tidal volume? What is normal tidal volume? What is expired minute volume?Like the bustling factory, the body must have a transportation system to carry its various cargos back and forth, and this is where the cardiovascular system steps in.
The cardiovascular system can be compared to a muscular pump equipped with one-way valves and a system of large and small plumbing tubes within which the blood travels.
The heart muscle has three layers and they are as follows:. The heart is equipped with four valves, which allow blood to flow in only one direction through the heart chambers. Although the heart chambers are bathed with blood almost continuously, the blood contained in the heart does not nourish the myocardium.
Blood circulates inside the blood vessels, which form a closed transport system, the so-called vascular system. Except for the microscopic capillaries, the walls of the blood vessels have three coats or tunics.
The major branches of the aorta and the organs they serve are listed next in sequence from the heart.
Finally, the aorta passes through the diaphragm into the abdominopelvic cavity, where it becomes the abdominal aorta. Veins draining into the superior vena cava are named in a distal-to-proximal direction; that is, in the same direction the blood flows into the superior vena cava. The inferior vena cava, which is much longer than the superior vena cava, returns blood to the heart from all body regions below the diaphragm.
As the heart beats or contracts, the blood makes continuous round trips- into and out of the heart, through the rest of the body, and then back to the heart- only to be sent out again. The spontaneous contractions of the cardiac muscle cells occurs in a regular and continuous way, giving rhythm to the heart. In a healthy heart, the atria contract simultaneously, then, as they start to relax, contraction of the ventricles begin. Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out by each side of the heart in one minute.
It is the product of the heart rate and the stroke volume. Arterial pulse pressure and blood pressure measurements, along with those of respiratory rate and body temperature, are referred to collectively as vital signs in clinical settings.
The right and left sides of the heart work together in achieving a smooth flowing blood circulation. All questions are given in a single page and correct answers, rationales or explanations if any are immediately shown after you have selected an answer. No time limit for this exam. Text Mode: All questions and answers are given on a single page for reading and answering at your own pace. Be sure to grab a pen and paper to write down your answers.
Specialized cell membrane structures that decrease electrical resistance between the cells allowing action potentials to pass efficiently from one cell to adjacent cells are the:.
Extensive capillary network B. Intercalated disks C. Mitochondria D.Click the link to your course and review the information presented. It is important that you check your email and Course Homepage regularly. You can also access your grades, transcripts, and determine who your academic advisor is by using MyLamarPA.
Course Information Course Number Course Description Study of the structure and function of human anatomy, including the neuroendocrine, integumentary, musculoskeletal, digestive, urinary, reproductive, respiratory, and circulatory systems. Krieger third edition Attendance Policy Roll will be taken every lab. I will recommend to the my department head that a student be dropped from the lab if they miss too many labs.
Only exceptible excuses are approved because of college-sponsored academic activities. In accordance with the Texas Education Code I will drop your two lowest lab pop tests and no lab practicals will be dropped. The average of your pop tests are worth one lab practical. A comprehinsive test will be given only if a student misses a lab practical.
If a student misses two practicals, they receive a zero for one practical and can replace the other zero with the comprehinsive final. If a student takes the four practicals on time, they are not eligible for the comprehinsive final. No make-up practical exams or pop tests are allowed for the week without a legitimate hospital excuse. Empirical and Quantitative Skills: Students will demonstrate applications of scientific and mathematical concepts.
Teamwork: Students will demonstrate the ability to work effectively with others to support a shared purpose or goal and consider different points of view. Personal Responsibility: Students will demonstrate the ability to connect choices, actions and consequences to ethical decision-making. Identifies all main ideas, supporting details, and vocabulary in reading material; demonstrates a full understanding of the reading.
Creatively identifies problem, argument, or issue to determine extent of information needed ; differentiates the facts from opinions as relates to situation; constructs possible solutions or prediction or consequences; uses logical, sound reasoning to justify conclusion. Identifies mathematical or scientific principles needed to complete task; uses mathematical or scientific principles needed to complete task; analyzes how to use the principles; and applies problem-solving skills in mathematical or scientific principles needed to complete task with correct informed conclusions.
PSLO 4: Teamwork Skills- Shows the ability to consider different points of view and to work effectively with others to support a shared purpose or goal. Course Student Learning Outcomes Biol. Use anatomical terminology to identify and describe locations of major organs of each system covered PSLOs 1, 2, 3, 4 measured by: Terms pop test, a major lab practical, and measured by: Group teamwork pop tests and research project. Explain interrelationships among molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ functions in each system PSLOs 1, 2, 3, 4 measured by: Terms pop test, a major lab practical, and measured by: Group teamwork pop tests.
Describe the interdependency and interactions of the systems PSLOs 1, 2, 3, 4 measured by: Terms pop test, a major lab practical, and measured by: Group teamwork pop tests. Explain contributions of organs and systems to the maintenance of homeostasis PSLOs 1, 2, 3, 4 measured by: Terms pop test, a major lab practical, and measured by: Group teamwork pop tests. Identify causes and effects of homeostatic imbalances PSLOs 1, 2, 3, 4 measured by: Terms pop test, a major lab practical, and measured by: Group teamwork pop tests.
Describe modern technology and tools used to study anatomy and physiology PSLOs 1, 2, 3, 4 measured by: Terms pop test, a major lab practical, and measured by: Group teamwork pop tests and research project. Locate and identify anatomical structures PSLOs 1, 2, 3, 4 measured by: Terms pop test, a major lab practical, and measured by: Group teamwork pop tests and research project. Appropriately utilize laboratory equipment, such as microscopes, dissection tools, general lab ware, physiology data acquisition systems, and virtual simulations PSLOs 1, 2, 3, 4 measured by: Terms pop test, a major lab practical, and measured by: Group teamwork pop tests and research project.
Demonstrate the steps involved in the scientific method PSLOs 1, 2, 3, 4 measured by: Terms pop test, a major lab practical, and measured by: Group teamwork pop tests and research project. Communicate results of scientific investigations, analyze data and formulate conclusions PSLOs 4 measured by: Group teamwork pop tests.
Use critical thinking and scientific problem-solving skills, including, but not limited to, inferring, integrating, synthesizing, and summarizing, to make decisions, recommendations, and predictions PSLOs 1, 2, 3, 4 measured by: Terms pop test, a major lab practical, and measured by: Group teamwork pop tests and research project. Academic Honesty Academic honesty is expected from all students, and dishonesty in any form will not be tolerated.
Facility Policies No food or tobacco products are allowed in the classroom. Only students enrolled in the course are allowed in the classroom, except by special instructor permission. Electronic devices including but not restricted to cell phones, MP3 players, and laptop computers shall not be used during examinations unless specifically allowed by the instructor.Find Flashcards.
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