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This page is your gateway to two types of point typology indexes:. The assumption in using this index is that you know the type and want to view information about the type. The Shape Index is my newest index. It is designed to help you identify a projectile point type that you may not know the name of. The shape or morphology index is organized by 10 major hafting area shape groups. An explanation and example for using the shape index is provided at the top of that index.
However, in late Americal Online withdrew the members area of their free web hosting site. I will assist in any way I can as time allows. It is suggested that fipronil bayer computer or web browsing device be able to display at least colors and the screen resolution be set to a minimum of x to enjoy the digital color photgraphs within the LITHICS-Net site.
The compressed graphics make the photos look muddy. I hope you find these helpful and as time allows, I will be annotating the bookmarked Glossary of Terms with these illustrations. And please drop in again soon. I always like to receive feedback and comments so please e-mail me.Gutters are channeled thin material placed on the down-slope edge of structures, giving water a way to escape from a roof via the channel and downspouts.
A rain gutter, eavestrough or surface water collection channel is a component of a water discharge system for a building necessary to prevent water dripping or flowing off roofs in an uncontrolled manner.
Gutters are important for several reasons, including the prevention of damage the walls, to direct the water to a suitable disposal site where it will not damage the foundations of the building or to a water containment system.
In the case of a flat roof, removal of water is clearly essential to prevent water ingress and to prevent a build-up of excessive weight. Water from a pitched roof flows down into a valley gutter, a parapet gutter or an eaves gutter. An eaves gutter is also known as an eavestrough especially in Canadarhone Scotland , eaves channel, dripster, guttering, rainspouting or simply as a gutter. Guttering in its earliest form consisted of lined wooden or stone troughs.
Lead was a popular liner and is still used in pitched valley gutters. Many materials have been used to make guttering: cast iron, asbestos cement, UPVC PVCucast and extruded aluminium, galvanized steel, wood, copper, zinc, bamboo and plastic or vinyl.
I would strongly advise against plastic gutters or vinyl gutters. Vinyl gutters are actually made from PVC plastic, and over time they begin to sag, crack, and wear out. You should not use vinyl gutters in the Northland.
Vinyl gutters wear out much quicker in cold climates, especially if there is a lot of rain, snow, wind and ice as most plastic can be damaged by such conditions. If you install plastic gutters in Minnesota, with our freezing winters, you may end up with cracked gutters just when you need them the most.
If an unlicensed handyman tells you they can do the work for less than the local going rate, they may be trying to scam you. They may do shoddy work, incomplete jobs or leave you with potentially dangerous and illegal code violations.
You should always use a licensed contractor. We are fully insured and licensed: BC Seamless Gutters.
Description here. End Caps. Accordion Content. Conductive Heads. Gutter Guard.
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I'm hoping that there is some sort of standard names for these arrowhead shapes so that I don't have to reinvent the wheel. So, taking a clue from zach-saucier, I started searching for flowchart and math symbol names which eventually led me to good 'ole Latex. Latex is a way of embedding math notation into documents: word, pdf, wiki, etc. Sign up to join this community.
The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Stack Overflow for Teams — Collaborate and share knowledge with a private group.
Arrowheads and Other Points: Myths and Little Known Facts
Create a free Team What is Teams? Learn more. Is there a standard list of names for different arrowhead shapes? Ask Question.
Asked 3 years, 10 months ago. Active 3 years, 10 months ago. Viewed times. Improve this question. Zach Saucier There are names for different arrows in fields such as mathematics and flow chart diagrams, but not in design as far as I'm aware. There would be far too many options for them all to have a distinct name. Add a comment. Active Oldest Votes. It's a start. Latex defines a set of arrowhead names: latex latex' stealth angle 60 etc. Improve this answer.Arrowheads are among the most easily recognized type of artifact found in the world.
Untold generations of children poking around in parks or farm fields or creek beds have discovered these rocks that have clearly been shaped by humans into pointed working tools. Our fascination with them as children is probably why there are so many myths about them, and almost certainly why those children sometimes grow up and study them.
Here are some common misconceptions about arrowheads, and some things that archaeologists have learned about these ubiquitous objects. Arrowheads, objects fixed to the end of a shaft and shot with a bow, are only a fairly small subset of what archaeologists call projectile points. A projectile point is a broad category of triangularly pointed tools made of stone, shell, metal, or glass and used throughout prehistory and the world over to hunt game and practice warfare.
A projectile point has a pointed end and some kind of worked element called the haft, which enabled attaching the point to a wood or ivory shaft. There are three broad categories of point-assisted hunting tools, including spear, dart or atlatland bow and arrow. Each hunting type requires a pointed tip that meets a specific physical shape, thickness, and weight; arrowheads are the very smallest of the point types. In addition, microscopic research into edge damage called 'use-wear analysis' has shown that some of the stone tools that look like projectile points may have been hafted cutting tools, rather than for propelling into animals.
In some cultures and time periods, special projectile points were clearly not created for a working use at all. These can be elaborately worked stone objects such as the so-called eccentrics or created for placement in a burial or other ritual context.
The smallest arrowheads are sometimes called "bird points" by the collector community. Experimental archaeology has shown that these tiny objects—even the ones under half an inch in length—are sufficiently lethal to kill a deer or even larger animal.
These are true arrowheads, in that they were attached to arrows and shot using a bow. An arrow tipped with a stone bird point would easily pass right through a bird, which is more easily hunted with nets.
Stone tools called blunt points or stunners are actually regular dart points that have been reworked so that the pointy end is a long horizontal plane. At least one edge of the plane might have been purposefully sharpened.
These are excellent scraping tools, for working animal hides or wood, with a ready-made hafting element. The proper term for these kinds of tools is hafted scrapers. Evidence for reworking and repurposing older stone tools was quite common in the past—there are many examples of lanceolate points long projectile points hafted onto spears that were reworked into dart points for use with atlatls.Please wait for this page to load.
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The Glossary was begun in June 3,first published on the internet in and was last updated on February 1, For many years archaeologists have shown great concern with projectile typology and a standardization of terms for projectile-point studies has been the focal point of innumerable efforts since the early 's.
It is rather surprising that now, as we approach the yearthere is, as of yet, no real accepted standard terminology and certainly no standardized attribute list for the comparison of projectile point forms. I would highly suggest that any person who wishes to fully study the lithic terms in this glossary first obtain and study the wonderful work of Lewis R. Cambron and David C. Hulse, Journal of Alabama ArchaeologyVol.
VII, No. Lewis, Tennessee Archaeologis t, Vol. Hulse, edited by David L. Baker, Williams Printing. This book contains a nice glossary of terms and explains all facets of stone artifact collecting and resources.
There are 6 major types of barbs, Expanded which means flaring outward and upwards towards the distal end, Horizontal which means flaring outward at 90 degrees to the stem, Inversely Tapered which means pointing downward and getting thinner, Rounded which means the outline is semi-circular, Struck which means knocked off, and Tapered which means minimized in an angle towards the tip.Most are arbitrarily named after people usually a landownersite locations, or their resemblance to other shapes.
Good communication between people requires a common set of terms, and naming specific shapes of artifacts with a type accomplishes this. These types are placed along a timeline based on the archaeological record. In other words, artifacts found by archaeologists buried below other types were deposited first and are older.
This makes type names very useful as they communicate not only the shape of an artifact, but also it's relative age. When you find broken artifacts sometimes there is enough left to identify it's type. These broken points are significant finds because they establish what types are found on a particular site.
I like to group together and photograph all diagnostic artifacts from a particular campsite as a way of keeping records. While you can compare your finds to my photos, remember that it's not just the shape that's important when typing points. You should also consider the flaking style percussion or pressure flakingtype of blade sharpening beveled or evennotching style, and the presence or absence of grinding on base edges.
A time before point types Only 65 years ago, when these drawings were made by Lee Adams, there were few named types, and very few dates associated with particular shapes. Archaeology as we know it was in it's infancy. It's good to keep in mind that arrowhead typology is an ongoing scientific process, subject to change as knowledge increases.
Point Terminology How to talk about stone tool shapes! Prehistoric North America Time Periods This subject seems complicated when people throw around an abundance of technical terms, but really there isn't much to it. Pre-historic time is divided into 5 stages, representing several thousand years: Pre-Clovis 20, to 13, years before present Paleoindian 13, to 9, years before present Archaic 9, to 3, years before present Woodland 3, to 1, years before present Mississippian 1, to years before present.
Historic years ago until now The categories listed above are further sub divided into 3 stages, each representing several hundred years: Early Middle Late When artifacts from intact stratified sites are dug up in a controlled context archaeologists know the types buried deepest were deposited first and are older than those found above.
Point types are placed along time lines based on the archaeological record. Pre-Clovis Period 20,years ago This is a somewhat controversial time period, with some old-school archaeologist believing human occupation didn't exist in Missouri before Clovis times 13, years ago and some newer evidence that suggest occupation going back 20, years or more; including possible pre-Clovis artifacts from the Big Eddy site in Cedar County, Missouri and the Shriver site in Davies County, Missouri.
Recently uncovered evidence from the Gault site in Texas makes the case for pre Clovis even more convincing than the Big Eddy site evidence. Below: Pre-clovis tools from Gault. Paleoindian Period 13, - 9, years ago. Paleoindians used mostly points with straight sides and no notches called Lanceolate from a fluted tradition. These flutes run from the base toward the tip, and thinned the point at the mounting location.Login or Sign Up. Logging in Remember me. Log in. Forgot password or user name?
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Previous template Next. Did the first Indians live in caves like cavemen? What is the difference between Paleo and Archaic, and Archaic and Woodland?
When did bows begin and atl-atls stop? What did the land look like 10, years ago? Were there tribes back then? What happened to the big civilizations like Cahokia?
When did metal start being used? The thing I love the most about prehistory is the fact that it is pre-history. It is the time before all things were written down. This allows us to ponder and theorize - to hypothesize and surmise. To seek evidence and knowledge to fill in the missing pieces of a puzzle that no one really knows what the resulting total picture may be.
I went to bed this evening thinking about a phone conversation I had with a new artifact collector who was asking tons of questions about ancient America and the first people to arrive here. Throughout our hour long conversation, I smiled.
It so reminded me of… Me. As our conversation came to a close, the collector on the other end thanked me for my time, and told me that while many of his questions were answered, each answer seemed to make him think of more questions and we could probably talk for hours more.
Again, I smiled. I have written in more than one book that I find the ability to envision the past the key to what drives some people to collect relics, and others to have little interest. Holding a relic in the hand and thinking about those who used it is diferentiating factor.
But what really did go on way back then? What did it look like?