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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Nabeel Khan. It involves a long pipe for major head loss, an expansion and a constriction pipe and an elbow for minor head losses. The pipes are connected to manometer so as to give the pressure difference between the pipes. The equipment is shown in figure 1. The fig 2 gives the labeled details of the experimental setup. There were some safety precautions that had to be followed as well.
Since the experiment involves the use of electricity, we needed to ensure that the experiment never comes in contact with water as it might lead to an electric shock.
All changes in the experimental design or procedure, if made, had to be supervised by the lab assistant. We first tried to calibrate the experimental setup before beginning. This was done by removing air bubbles from the linings of the tubes connecting the manometer and the pipes. This was followed by connecting the manometers to the long pipe and setting the flow rate in the rotameter to the required values and then the change in the height of manometers was observed in the manometers.
This was followed by noting the time it takes to fill 10 liters of water in the empty tank. We had to repeat the same procedure using the other pipes. The values of the diameter and the length of the pipes are given in the lab manual. We would find the head losses using the above given equations. We learned through this experiment that there is an head loss in each pipe due to internal friction of the pipes. The experiment is accurate and gives us a good idea of the head loss in pipes.
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Fluid Mechanics Frank. By Sravankumar Kota. Fluid 9ed solution manual. By Zeinah Bustani.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Md Kabir.
Two types of fluid flows were observed: laminar and turbulent. The Moody chart was used to determine the theoretical friction factor and compared with the values obtained experimentally. Beyond Re the flow fluctuates. The maximum calculated values for the friction factors were 0.
As a fluid flows through a pipe, energy losses will occur in the form of e. Head losses can be classified as major head losses or minor head losses. The Darcy-Weisbach friction factor is the friction factor f used in the previous equation, which is 4 times greater than the Fanning friction factor. This friction factor depends on the velocity of the fluid flow and therefore, is not a constant.
Reynolds number can be used to describe the behavior of the flow, which can be either laminar or turbulent depending if the Reynolds number is above or below a critical value. Above the critical value would be a turbulent flow while below the critical value would be a laminar flow.
Around the critical value, properties of both flows can be observed. For pipe flow, the critical Reynolds number is around However, this D 2g equation failed to effectively provide data for variations of the friction factor with the velocity. The correlation between these terms were showcased in the Moody chart, developed by L. The chart was divided into 4 Reynolds number zones, and the curves in each zone were establish using the data and accepted correlations which were establish through experiments, allowing numerous fluid mechanics design calculations and problems to be solved more conveniently.
As the values in the chart are approximations for a range of data values, and the fact that for Reynolds numbers between andthe friction factor is an indeterminate value, it can be said that the accuracy of the results using the Moody chart are quite acceptable for simple calculations, but for more critical calculations, another method should be used such as the direct application of the Colebrook equation, without the use of the Moody Diagram.
Assumptions made in order to develop the chart include that the fluid under observation was incompressible and that the system was operating under steady state. Pipe losses can be reduced in several ways, such as by incorporating fewer bends and turns in the pipe system, which would in turn reduce minor head losses.
The inside surface of the pipe can be constructed with a material of relatively lower roughness, which will result in a lower friction factor and thus head loss. These materials however, can be expensive; hence making the operation less economical.Introduction Page 4 1. Objective Page 5 2. Theory Page 5 2.
Theoretical Background Page 5 2.
Sample Calculations: Page 8. Describe operation of various types of valves 2. Measure frictional losses due to flows through different valves 3. Abstract This experiment of the friction loss along a smooth pipe shows that there are existence of laminar and transitional flows as stated in Graph 2. It is proven that the higher velocity along the smooth bore pipe, the higher is the head loss of water. As shown in Table 3. On top of that, there are energy loss from the water to the surface of the.
Other losses may also occur due to the present of valves, elbows, bend and other fittings that involves change in the direction of flow and size of flow passage. Frictional head loss is a measure of the reduction in the total head sum of elevation head, velocity head and pressure head of a fluid as it moves through a fluid system.
Frictional head loss is unavoidable in real fluids and is present due to friction between adjacent. The head losses resulting from such. The teacher must function as a creative monitor in the Language Lab for the following: A.
Developing Listening Comprehension Skill; 1. The concept is very similar to sudden expansion in pipe flow, except that hydraulic jumps occur in open-channel flow. The Coca-Cola Company, its subsidiaries and products have been subject to sustained criticism by both consumer groups and watchdogs, particularly since the early s. Friction Losses Abstract—The purpose of the experiment is to study the differences of roughness, valves and geometries of pipe and how they influence friction losses.
The shear stress of a flow is also dependent on whether the flow is turbulent or laminar. For turbulent flow, the pressure drop is dependent on the roughness of the surface, while in laminar flow, the roughness effects of the wall are negligible. This is due to the fact that in turbulent flow, a thin viscous layer …show more content… We then prepared the correct valves to be open and turned on the cold water supply.
We then checked that the peizometer tubes were connected to the correct tappings. We used a hand pump to calibrate the piezometer tubes to set them to the same level. We then opened the gate valve, waited for flow to settle and recorded our readings and data into the correct table.
When readings had been gathered we then used the gate valve to reduce the flow rate in small increments and took readings at various flow rates.
We followed these same steps to get readings from smooth pipes, rough pipes and losses due to bends. Results Tappings 13 and Show More. Read More. Popular Essays. Open Document.The total energy loss in a pipe system is the sum of the major and minor losses. Major losses are associated with frictional energy loss that is caused by the viscous effects of the fluid and roughness of the pipe wall. Major losses create a pressure drop along the pipe since the pressure must work to overcome the frictional resistance.
The Darcy-Weisbach equation is the most widely accepted formula for determining the energy loss in pipe flow. In this equation, the friction factor fa dimensionless quantity, is used to describe the friction loss in a pipe. In fully turbulent flows, f depends on both the Reynolds number and relative roughness of the pipe wall.
In engineering applications, it is important to increase pipe productivity, i. This means that energy consumption, to overcome the frictional resistance in a pipe conveying a certain flow rate, can be significantly reduced at a relatively small capital cost. The objective of this experiment is to investigate head loss due to friction in a pipe, and to determine the associated friction factor under a range of flow rates and flow regimes, i. The friction factor is determined by measuring the pressure head difference between two fixed points in a straight pipe with a circular cross section for steady flows.
The pipe friction apparatus consists of a test pipe mounted vertically on the riga constant head tank, a flow control valve, an air-bleed valve, and two sets of manometers to measure the head losses in the pipe Figure 4.
A set of two water-over-mercury manometers is used to measure large pressure differentials, and two water manometers are used to measure small pressure differentials.
Experiment #4: Energy Loss in Pipes
When not in use, the manometers may be isolated, using Hoffman clamps. Since mercury is considered a hazardous substance, it cannot be used in undergraduate fluid mechanics labs. Therefore, for this experiment, the water-over-mercury manometers are replaced with a differential pressure gauge to directly measure large pressure differentials. This experiment is performed under two flow conditions: high flow rates and low flow rates.
For high flow rate experiments, the inlet pipe is connected directly to the bench water supply. For low flow rate experiments, the inlet to the constant head tank is connected to the bench supply, and the outlet at the base of the head tank is connected to the top of the test pipe .
This valve should face the volumetric tank, and a short length of flexible tube should be attached to it, to prevent splashing. The air-bleed valve facilitates purging the system and adjusting the water level in the water manometers to a convenient level, by allowing air to enter them.
The energy loss in a pipe can be determined by applying the energy equation to a section of a straight pipe with a uniform cross section:. If the pipe is horizontal:. The pressure difference P out -P in between two points in the pipe is due to the frictional resistance, and the head loss h L is directly proportional to the pressure difference.
For laminar flow, the Darcy-Weisbach coefficient or friction factor f is only a function of the Reynolds number Re and is independent of the surface roughness of the pipe, i. Other factors, such as roughness spacing and shape, may also affect the value of f ; however, these effects are not well understood and may be negligible in many cases.
Instead of using the Moody diagram, f can be determined by utilizing empirical formulas.In the Datasets Section you can learn how customize the parsing rules and other options when converting a datasource to a dataset.
Each field in your source is automatically assigned an id that you can later use as a parameter in models and predictions. In the Models Section you will learn how to customize the input fields or the objective field. You can use this id to retrieve the prediction later on.
The predicted value is found in the prediction object, keyed by the corresponding objective field id. A quick start guide for the impatient is here. You can use BigML. That is to say, using BigML. Fully white-box access to your datasets, models, clusters and anomaly detectors.
Asynchronous creation of resources. The four original BigML resources are: source, dataset, model, and prediction. As shown in the picture below, the most basic flow consists of using some local (or remote) training data to create a source, then using the source to create a dataset, later using the dataset to create a model, and, finally, using the model and new input data to create a prediction.
The training data is usually in tabular format. Each row in the data represents an instance (or example) and each column a field (or attribute). These fields are also known as predictors or covariates. When the machine learning task to learn from training data is supervised one of the columns (usually the last column) represents a special attribute known as objective field (or target) that assigns a label (or class) to each instance.
The training data in this format is named labeled and the machine learning task to learn from is named supervised learning.
Once a source is created, it can be used to create multiple datasets. Likewise, a dataset can be used to create multiple models and a model can be used to create multiple predictions. A model can be either a classification or a regression model depending on whether the objective field is respectively categorical or numeric.
Often an ensemble (or collection of models) can perform better than just a single model. Thus, a dataset can also be used to create an ensemble instead of a single model.
A dataset can also be used to create a cluster or an anomaly detector. Clusters and Anomaly Detectors are both built using unsupervised learning and therefore an objective field is not needed. In these cases, the training data is named unlabeled. A centroid is to a cluster what a prediction is to a model.
Likewise, an anomaly score is to an anomaly detector what a prediction is to a model. There are scenarios where generating predictions for a relative big collection of input data is very convenient. For these scenarios, BigML. These resources take a dataset and respectively a model (or ensemble), a cluster, or an anomaly detector to create a new dataset that contains a new column with the corresponding prediction, centroid or anomaly score computed for each instance in the dataset.
Note: In the snippets below you should substitute Alfred's username and API key for your own username and API Key.
You can create, read, update, and delete resources using the respective standard HTTP methods: POST, GET, PUT and DELETE. All communication with BigML. All access to BigML. In this way communication between your application and BigML.New Orleans averages 12. Sacramento ranks 15th in second chance points allowed per game (12. During their last five games, the Pelicans have scored an average of 114. Tags New Orleans Pelicans Sacramento KingsThe Creighton Bluejays (6-2) matchup against the Nebraska Cornhuskers (7-3) at CenturyLink Center Omaha on Saturday night.
The Oklahoma State Cowboys (7-1) welcome the No. ET on Friday, December 8 on NBC Sacramento Kings vs. At home, New Orleans is 6-6 ATS with 7 overs and 5 unders. Sacramento is 3-2 when they allow below 100 points, while New Orleans is 4-0. When scoring over 100 points, the Kings are 4-4 and the Pelicans are 11-7. New Orleans ranks 14th in rebounds per game (44. The Kings rank fifth in blocks allowed per game (4.
Bettings Trends: In their last five games, Sacramento is 3-1-1 ATS with 4 overs and 1 under. New Orleans is 2-3 ATS with 5 overs over their last five games. About the Author Latest PostsMiami Heat vs. Wichita State Shockers vs. The game starts at 7 p. ET on Friday, December 8, 2017, and will air on NBC Sports Chicago.
The Bulls are hoping for a better outcome after their 98-96 loss to the Indiana Pacers in their last matchup. The Pacers had a rate of 12. Kris Dunn led Chicago in scoring with 18 points on 8-for-14 shooting. The Warriors had a rate of 0.
Charlotte should be expected to protect the ball well in this contest. Charlotte ranks first in the league at avoiding errors (turnover percentage of 13. Moreover, the Bulls rank 24th in offensive rebounding percentage (20. Chicago holds records of 3-20 straight up (SU) and 9-11-3 against the spread (ATS).
Meanwhile, Charlotte is 9-14 SU and 10-12-1 ATS. Coinciding with Chicago, a little over half of Hornets games have finished under the total.
This will be the second game of the season between these two teams. In the first, the Hornets lost 123-120, unable to cover as 6. Walker scored a game-high 47 points and also had six rebounds and five assists. The game finished with a total of 243 points, which was 44.
Chicago had a rate of 10. Charlotte ranks second in rebounds per game (47. The Bulls average 31. The Hornets rank 27th in three pointers allowed per game (32.
Friction Losses Lab Report - Fluids
The Hornets rank first in points off turnovers allowed per game (14. Charlotte ranks second in fast break points allowed per game (8. Charlotte leads the league with 9. During their last five games, the Hornets have scored an average of 98. Tags charlotte hornets Chicago BullsThe Creighton Bluejays (6-2) matchup against the Nebraska Cornhuskers (7-3) at CenturyLink Center Omaha on Saturday night.Acne can continue coming back well after puberty.
Exfoliate every four days with a scrub to get rid of dead skin cells. You don't have to rub the whole time but it helps. The most effective final rinse is to fill a sink with warm water and soak your skin while rubbing it gently until the cleanser is gone. Plunge your face in the water. If you used a lot of cleanser, you may need to repeat the rinse. Rinse once more using cold water to close your pores.
Some people prefer a toner for this last step. Any cleanser residue simply contributes to the next round of oil and dirt accumulation.
This procedure is most effective if done in the morning and evening. Watch out for reddened skin or rebound oil production. These are clear signs you need a gentler cleanser. The gentlest cleansers on the market can clean the oiliest skin more effectively than the harshest. During the first two weeks, you may experience increased acne as clogged pores open up and form pimples. Eventually, you'll get them all and your acne will improve. Benzoyl peroxide gels, and other over the counter products work really well.
Talk to your doctor about trying one. Rub ice on the place that the pimple is try to also rub it on your whole face to prevent future breakouts Don't overdo cleaning with products, it may cause skin irritation and cause an outbreak. Remember, facial products will tend to be more beneficial at first but contain additives which mean the acne will never really disappear, to ensure you keep purchasing their products. When you have touch your face with pimples make sure to wash your hands every time, Face masks are a great way to deep clean your pores and can bring everything to the surface so it can be treated with your cleanser and acne treatment.
You can sample many different face masks from Sephora. Detox and Charcoal masks are great options for people who have acne as are resurfacing masks to help with the bumpy texture of your skin.
Masks may temporarily make your skin worse as it causes your skin to purge, but it can help in the long run if you do them twice to three times a week. Before applying a face mask, make sure you cleanse your skin well, and when done follow with an oil free moisturizer. Warnings Don't pop your pimples. More pimples may appear.
Co-authors: 103 KG Karla Gonzalez Aug 24, 2016 "I definitely recommend Witch Hazel. Tea Tree Oil is really great too, you just have to be careful with it because it can really dry your skin, if you put too much it will burn your skin.
The tips and answered questions were helpful as well. I use green tea and ice cubes and the results are amazing, especially for purplish pimples. These techniques really work. Almost all of my acne are gone.